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Toyota Land cruiser Repair manuals

About Toyota Landcruiser

The Toyota Land Cruiser is often a a list of four-wheel drive vehicles that is generated by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. Balanced growth of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle and production were only available in 1954. The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, hardtop, station wagon, and utility truck versions. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia where it's the best-selling full-size, body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle. Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser while in the Australian outback perceived as among the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain.. Main rivals include the Range Rover, Land Rover Discovery, Mitsubishi Pajero and Nissan Patrol.

Some Land Cruiser workshop and owners manuals

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covered all info the enthusiast demands from a grease plus oil change with a full rebuild. It covers the following petrol gas motors as well as the following gearboxs: 1972 cubic centimetre "21R" 4 cyl 1972 cubic centimetre "21R-C" 4 cyl 2367 cubic centimetre "22R" 4 cyl 3956 cubic centimetre "3F" 6 cyl 4230 cubic centimetre "2F" 6 cyl "J30" 3 speed manual "H41" 4 speed manual "H42" 4 speed manual "H55F" 5 gear manual "G40" 4 speed manual "G52F" 5 gear manual 3 speed automatic # Contents: Introduction. # Maintenance plus Tune-Up. # Petrol Engines: 2F 3F 6 Cylinder 21R 21R-C 22R 4 Cylinder. # Fuel Systems. # Lubrication System. # Ignition System. # Radiator. # Starting System. # Alternator System. # friction clutch. # Manual gearbox: 3 Speed J30: 4 5 gear H41 H42 H55F: 4 5 gear G40 G52F. # Automatic gearboxs. # Transfer Systems. # Propeller Shafts. # Front Axle plus While not legal many FJ40 series cars may have their rooftop plus doorways removed. With a folding windshield this enabled for complete open-air experience. Toyota Landcruiser Petrol FJ RJ - 1969 - 1990 Ellery Repair Manual 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 additional info.....

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1998 Haynes Owners Service Repair Manual covers models: ● FJ60 ● 62 ● 70 ● 73 ● 75 ● 80 ● FZJ80 motors Covered: ● 2F ● 3F ● 1FZ-FE Contents: ● Introductory Pages Regarding this Manual; Introduction; Car Identification Numbers; Purchasing Parts; Maintenance Tips Tools plus Working Facilities; Fraction/Decimal/Millimeter Equivalents; Jacking plus Towing; Booster Battery (jump) starting; Automotive Chemicals plus Lubricants; Conversion Factors; Safety First!; Troubleshooting ● Tune Up Routine Maintenance ● 2F 3F Pushrod motors ● Dual Overhead Camshaft (Dual Overhead Cam) motor ● General engine Overhaul Procedures ● Cooling Heating Air Conditioning Systems ● Fuel Exhaust pipess - Carburatted motors ● Fuel Exhaust pipess - Africa plus Australia a part-time program was nonetheless accessible. 80s yielded between 1990 plus 1991 had an open centre differential that was lockable inside 4HI plus automatically secured inside 4LO. From 1992 forward engine vehicle with anti-lock braking program had a viscous coupling which much more info

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Land Cruiser 60 70 plus 80 Series (Petrol) 1980 - 1998 Gregorys Owners Service Repair Manual covers Toyota Landcruiser Petrol 1980 Aug with 1998 covers FJ60 FJ62 FJ70 FJ73 FJ75 FJ80 FZJ80 series Hardtop wagon Utility Ute cab chassis troop carrier. four.0 liter (3F) motors four.5 liter (1FZ-FE) 6 piston petrol engines About the Toyota Landcruiser The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive engine auto yielded by the Japanese auto machine Toyota Motor Corporation. Development of the initially generation Land Cruiser started inside 1951 because Toyota's variation of the Jeep-like car plus creation began inside 1954. The Land Cruiser has been yielded inside convertible hardtop station wagon plus utility truck versions plus it's currently Toyota's flagship 4WD car. The Land Cruiser's dependability plus longevity has led with big recognition specifically the country] plus were initially employed inside the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme. 40 Series 40 Series Toyota Land Cruiser (BJ40LV) Additionally called Toyota Macho (Venezuela) Production 1960-1984 Assembly ARACO Yoshiwara Aichi Japan Body style(s) 2-door Softtop 2-door Hardtop 2-door click

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Toyota Landcruiser four-stroke diesel BJ HJ LJ 1972 - 1990 Owners Service Repair Manual covers: Toyota Landcruiser four-stroke diesel BJ HJ plus LJ - 40's 55's 60's 70's plus Bundera. Toyota though 4 plus six cylinder models with the body designs required with go anywhere any time. All of these models are showcased inside these manuals what we require whenever considering a trip. We have covered all of the info the enthusiast demands from a grease plus oil change with a full rebuild. Engines covered: B 3B 13B-T L 2L 2L-T (2446 cubic centimetre ) H 2H (3980 cubic centimetre ) plus 12H-T (3980 cubic centimetre turbo). Contents: # Introduction. # Engine Tune-Up plus Maintenance. # four-stroke diesel Engines: B 3B 13B-T L 2L 2L-T H 2H 12H-T. # four-stroke diesel Fuel Systems. # Lubrication System. # Radiator. # Starter plus Alternator System. # Turbocharger. # friction clutch. Repair Manual NEW 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 further data

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not a factory guide yet offers illustrated step-by-step descriptions of repair plus upkeep procedures based about hands about experience along with a car teardown utilizing commonly accessible tools. Land Cruiser FJ Series Petrol 1975 - 1983 Wagon Ute Hard Top Soft Top Cab Chassis Troop Carrier FJ 40 45 55 60 4230 cubic centimetre (2F) No 211 4WD Service Repair Manual Other Toyota Landcruiser Repair Manuals click here Get Other Toyota Repair Manuals click here About the Toyota Landcruiser FJ The Toyota FJ40 is the model designation for a Toyota Land Cruiser 40 series made of 1960 till 1984. Most 40 series Land Cruisers were built because two-door engine vehicle with somewhat bigger dimensions than a Jeep CJ. The model was additionally accessible below the BJ40 / 41 / 42 ( brief wheelbase ) BJ43 / 44 / 46 ( center wheelbase ) or HJ45 / 47 ( extended wheelbase ) the choices Disk braking program added inside Australia * 1984 – End of F40 series creation * 2001 – End of Bandeirante production Over the years Toyota has changed the machines employed inside the FJ40 series. The B series engine is a 4 piston diesel as well as the H series a 6 piston related info

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Gregory`s workshop guide covers all Toyota Land Cruiser wagons utilities hardtops soft tops troop carriers plus cab chassis inside the FJ 40 45 55 plus 60 series built from 1975 to1984 plus fitted with all the 2F 4230 cubic centimetre petrol engine. It is not a factory guide yet delivers illustrated step-by-step descriptions of repair plus upkeep procedures based about hands about experience along with a car teardown utilizing commonly accessible tools. Land Cruiser FJ Series Petrol 1975 - 1984 Wagon Ute Hard Top Soft Top Cab Chassis Troop Carrier FJ 40 45 55 60 4230 cubic centimetre (2F) No 511 4WD Service Repair Manual Other Toyota Landcruiser Repair Manuals click here Get Other Toyota Repair Manuals click here About the Toyota Landcruiser FJ The Toyota FJ40 is the model designation for a Toyota Land Cruiser 40 series made of 1960 till 1984. Most 40 series Land all inside the F series with different energy reviews. While not legal many FJ40 series engine automobile might have their rooftop plus doorways removed. With a folding windshield this authorized for complete open-air experience. Toyota Landcruiser Petrol FJ series 1975 - 1984 Gregorys Repair click

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Cruiser Petrol Diesel Series 78 79 100 plus 105. Petrol Engines Covered: ● four.5 liter (4 477 cubic centimetre ) DOHC 1FZ-FE ● four.7 liter (4 664 cubic centimetre ) DOHC 2UZ-FE Diesel Engines Covered: ● four.2 liter (4164 cubic centimetre ) SOHC 1HZ Indirect Injection 6 piston ● four.2 liter (4164 cubic centimetre ) SOHC 1HD-FTE Direct Injection 6 piston Turbo Transmissions Transfer Cases Covered: ● "R151F" 5 Speed Manual Transmission (removal/installation oil seals dismantling inspection reassembly) ● "H150F H151F" 5 Speed Manual Transmission (removal/installation oil seals dismantling inspection reassembly) ● "A442F" 4 speed Car gearbox (removal/installation wires linkages inhibitor switch oil seals nevertheless not overhaul) ● "HF1A" Dual Range Part-Time 4WD Transfer Case The Land Cruiser series is the greatest running series inside Toyota history.Programming of the initial generation Land Cruiser started inside 1951 because Toyota's variation of the Jeep-like car plus creation began inside 1954. The secure Cruiser has been yielded inside convertible hardtop more information.....

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Cab Chassis Troop Carrier Standard RV GXL Sahara. Series Covered - HJ60 HJ61 HJ70 HJ75 HZJ80 HDJ80 four-stroke diesel motors Covered: ● four.0 litre "2H" 6 piston OHV Indirect Injection ● four.0 litre "12H-T" 6 piston OHV Direct Injection Turbocharged ● four.2 litre "1HZ" 6 piston Single Over Head Camshaft ● four.2 litre "1HD-T" 6 Cinderyl Single Over Head Camshaft Direct Turbocharged ● four.2 litre "1HD-FT" 6 piston Single Over Head Camshaft Direct Turbo 24v. Covers everything you ought to recognize step-by-step procedures 100s of pictures plus drawings routine upkeep wiring diagrams repairs plus overhauls plus what tools with purchase. Gregorys manuals are based about an actual car stripdown plus are researched plus created by automotive motorers with massive experience.Gregorys workshop manuals are yielded for the Australian sales inside Japan by placing the Land Cruiser inside a lower taxes compact Freight-car category than its 3.9-liter gasoline variation. Note: the hot B four-stroke diesel engine was different within the B gasoline engine employed inside the authentic BJ. * 1975 - The 3.9-liter gasoline full details

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Repair Manuals click here Toyota Land Cruiser 4WD Petrol Diesel 1998 - 2007 Gregorys Owners Service Repair Manual Covers the following engine car: ● Wagon Ute Hardtop Cab Chassis Troop Carrier Standard RV GXL ● 78 plus 79 series ● 100 series ● 105 series motors Covered: ● four.2 liter (4164 cc) "1HZ" indirect-injection Single Over Head Camshaft 6 cylinder diesel ● four.2 liter (4164 cc) "1HD-FTE" direct-injection Single Over Head Camshaft 6 cylinder turbo diesel ● four.5 liter '1FZ-FE' 6 Cylinder Petrol ● 4 7 liter '2UZ-FE' vee 8 Petrol Transmissions covered: ● R151F 5-speed manual ● A442F 4-speed automatic ● HF1A transfer case Contents: ● Introductory Pages Regarding this Manual; Introduction with the Toyota Land Cruiser; Car Identification Numbers; Purchasing Parts; Maintenance Tips Tools plus FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged within the "40" series when six-cylinder four.0 liter 2H plus four-cylinder 3.4 liter 3B diesel motors were put into the product line. * 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million along with a high-roof adaptation was link here

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HDJ80. Does NOT cover BK or Colorado models. four-stroke diesel motors Covered: ● four.0 liter (3980 cubic centimetre ) "2H 12H-T" OHV 6 piston ● four.2 liter (4164 cubic centimetre ) "1HZ" OHC 6 piston ● four.2 liter (4164 cubic centimetre ) "1HD-T" OHC 6 piston ● four.2 liter (4164 cubic centimetre ) "1HD-FT" OHC 24-valve () Transmissions Covered: ● H41 plus H42 4-speed guide (1990 plus earlier) ● H55F 5-speed guide (1990 plus earlier and 1990 plus later 70 series) ● H140F H150F plus H151F 5-speed guide (80 series) ● A440F or A442F 4-speed automatic NOTE: Just upkeep change minor repair procedures and removal plus installation are described for the Auto gearbox. Contents: ● Introductory Pages Regarding this Manual; Introduction with the Toyota Land Cruiser four-stroke diesel; Car Identification Numbers; Purchasing inside 4LO. From 1992 forward cars with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling which transmitted a maximum of 30% torque with the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable inside 4HI plus automatically secured inside 4LO. Toyota Land Cruiser four-stroke diesel Haynes Owners Service information

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About the 2F engine The Toyota F series engine had been a series of OHV inline-6 cylinder motors yielded by Toyota between 1955-1992. These are generally recognized for their excellent amount of torque at low RPM huge cast iron blocks plus heads and their excellent dependability. The F engine had among the greatest creation runs of any Toyota engine. The F motors all incorporate overhead valves actuated by pushrods from a gear driven camshaft inside the lower part of the engine. The engine was initially introduced inside the Land Cruiser plus inside several nations was truly the only motors available inside the Landcruiser till 1993. Although it's commonly badged because the Land Cruiser engine it was selected inside a range of alternative big truck applications also like inside fire pickups as well as the Toyota FQ15 pickups. It was additionally utilized inside the one point seven699-one point seven707 VALVES Intake length 4.913 Exhaust length 4.921 Intake stem more tips

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system winch fram body plus electric. About the Toyota Landcruiser The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive cars yielded by the Japanese auto machine Toyota Motor Corporation. Development of the initial generation Land Cruiser started inside 1951 because Toyota's variation of the Jeep-like car plus manufacturing began inside 1954. The Land Cruiser has been yielded inside convertible hardtop station wagon plus Ute truck versions plus it happens to be currently Toyota's flagship 4WD car. The Land Cruiser's dependability plus longevity has led with big recognition incredibly inside Australia where it really is the best-selling full-size body-on-frame four-wheel drive car.Toyota furthermore thoroughly tests the Land Cruiser inside the Australian outback—considered with be among the toughest running conditions inside terms of both plus Europe have a full-time four-wheel drive program. In Japan Africa plus Australia a part-time program was nevertheless accessible. 80s yielded between 1990 plus 1991 had an open centre differential that was lockable inside 4HI plus automatically secured inside 4LO. From 1992 forward more details.....

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paperback US guide covering FJ40 FJ43 FJ 45 FJ55 series Landcruisers with all the "F" 3878cc plus "2F" 4230cc 6 cylinder petrol machines. Other Toyota Landcruiser Repair Manuals click here Get Other Toyota Repair Manuals click here About the Toyota Landcruiser FJ The Toyota FJ40 is the model designation for a Toyota Land Cruiser 40 series made of 1960 till 1984. Most 40 series Land Cruisers were built because two-door engine vehicle with somewhat bigger dimensions than a Jeep CJ. The model was equally accessible beneath the BJ40 / 41 / 42 ( brief wheelbase ) BJ43 / 44 / 46 ( center wheelbase ) or HJ45 / 47 ( extended wheelbase ) designation where it had a Diesel engine. * 1960 – FJ40 series introduced. (wheelbase 2 285 mm (90 in) / 2 430 mm (96 in) / 2 650 mm (104 in) * 1965 – Longer wheelbase (2 950 mm (116 in)) FJ45-B pickup plus cab-chassis were added * 1967 friendly * 1980 – HJ47 introduced with a four.0 liter 6 cylinder diesel engine. End of HJ45 production – BJ42/46 plus BJ45 introduced with a 3.4 liter 4 cylinderinder diesel engine * 1981 – Power steering added found on the BJ models with the choices Disk braking program added details

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3955cc (6 cyl) Wagon Utllity Hard Top Cab Chassis Troop Carrier Other Toyota Landcruiser Repair Manuals click here Get Other Toyota Repair Manuals click here About the Toyota Landcruiser FJ 60 plus FJ70 series * 1980 - The 60 series was introduced. While nevertheless keeping the durable off-road characteristics of past Land Cruisers the 60 was crafted with better compete inside the emerging sport Ute car marketplace. The 60 was provided a range of comforts like air conditioner a back heater plus an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged within the "40" series whilst six-piston four.0 litre 2H plus four-piston 3.4 litre 3B diesel motors were put into the product line. * 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million along with a high-roof variation was introduced. The 60 was introduced with South Africa whenever a stock torque with the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable inside 4HI plus automatically secured inside 4LO. Originally model numbers 70 by 74 referred with the 2 door short plus medium wheelbase versions. These were the successors of the well-known 40 Series like the FJ40. Model more advice

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motors: 1HZ four.2l diesel (4164 cubic centimetre ) 6-piston 1HD-T four.2l turbo diesel (4164 cubic centimetre ) 6-piston 1HD-FT four.2l turbo diesel (4164 cubic centimetre ) 6-piston Transmissions: H55F 5-speed guide (70 series) H150F 5-speed guide (80 series non-turbo) H151F 5-speed guide (80 series turbo) A442F 4 geared automatic About the Toyota Landcruiser The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive cars yielded by the Japanese automobile creator Toyota Motor Corporation. Development of the initially generation Land Cruiser started inside 1951 because Toyota's adaptation of the Jeep-like car plus creation began inside 1954. The Land Cruiser has been yielded inside convertible hardtop station wagon plus utility truck versions plus it is actually currently Toyota's flagship 4WD car. The Land Cruiser's dependability plus longevity has led with big recognition delivery of the initial of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although rapidly reliable plus with advantageous off-road performance the sort tended with rust excessively inside the wet Irish climate. A some that didn't su cubic centimetre umb with the effects of weather were repainted inside gloss olive green more advice

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Other Toyota Car Repair Manuals click here Other Toyota Landcruiser Repair Manuals click here This is an great guide with over 500 pages. It has step-by-step instructions covering all aspects of the engine vehicle. The manual Covers station wagons utilities troop carriers plus tray models. The initially section "motor tune-up plus maintenance" guides we from the many simple repair plus tune-up. It involves the requirements necessary whether you may be an owner wishing with change the oil or perhaps a technician requiring requirements for tune-up plus repair. motor section - We have covered all 6 cylinder four-stroke diesel motors 1HZ 1HD-T 1HD-FT plus 1HD-FTE which Toyota ran from 1990 with 2002. Turbocharged motors are included. This section is full of step-by-step instructions and a lot of pictures plus line illustrations with provide the reader explicit detail front back plus straight-6 petrol plus four-stroke diesel motors. These models were just available inside African Australian plus South American markets. The 100 models were fitted with a somewhat wider chassis independent front springs plus shock absorbers (IFS) plus 2 hot motors. The change click the link

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pages plus over 1400 illustrations plus pictures with step-by-step instructions. Suitable for everyone within the driver whom wants with keep his running expenses down by carrying out a few of the minor upkeep with the technician requiring comprehensive info. Tune-up plus Maintenance section - for those small 5 minute jobs required with keep everything running smoothly plus assist to keep a car running longer. Engine chapters - 3 chapters 3F 3F-E 1FZ-F 1FZ-FE and the vee 8 2UZ-FE. Chapters cover all small details including identifying different blocks cranks plus bearing codes. Our manuals guide we by all jobs like removing an exhaust manifold with rebuilding an engine. The transmission chapters - provide step-by-step pictures plus instructions for upkeep plus rebuild of the different guide plus Car gearboxs. A transfer case section is furthermore included. Front plus FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged within the "40" series whilst six-cylinder four.0 litre 2H plus four-cylinder 3.4 litre 3B four-stroke diesel motors were put into the product line. * 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million along with a high-roof variation was introduced. The 60 was more.....

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About the 2H engine The 2H is a four.0 L (3980 cc) inline 6 12 valve OHV four-stroke diesel engine. Bore is 91 mm plus stroke is 102 mm with a compression ratio of 20.7:1. Output is 103 hp (77 kW) at 3500 rpm - later manufacturing years 107 hp (80 kW) with 177 ft·lbf (240 N·m) of torque at 2000 rpm. Applications Toyota Land Cruiser HJ47 HJ60 Toyota Dyna HU20 25 40 50 Toyota Coaster HB20 30 6 cyl 2H 3980 cc BORE STROKE FIRING MAIN ROD ORDER JOURNAL JOURNAL 3.5827 4.0157 1-4-2-6-3-5 2.7559 2.1654 SPARK PLUG SPARK PLUG DISTRIBUTOR IGN.TIMING OIL CAPACITY TYPE Int:15 Exh:17 Water pump bolt Oil pan bolt 8-11 Wtr.pmp.pulley bolt PISTON Diameter considerably more details

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Toyota Land Cruiser - Chassis and Body factory workshop and repair manual Covers FJ70 FJ73 FJ75 BJ60 BJ70 BJ73 BJ75 HJ60 HJ75 on PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 120 Mb Bookmarketed with 851 pages Does not cover the engine. Covers Clutch transmission (4 speed H41 and H42 and 3 speed J30) transfer case propeller shaft front and rear axles steering brakes winch frame body and electrical. About the Toyota Landcruiser The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles fashioned by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. Programming of the first generation secure Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's type of a Jeep-like vehicle and production started in 1954. The secure Cruiser happens to be released in convertible hardtop station wagon and utility truck versions and it is currently Toyota's flagship 4WD vehicle. The Land Cruiser's excellence and longevity has led to huge popularity exclusively in Australia where it is the b more.....

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Toyota A442F Automatic Transmission factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . File size 21 Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. Covers Operation Component Parts Removal Oil Pump Overdrive Unit Front Clutch Rear Clutch Second Brake Front and Rear Planetary Gear Unit First and Reverse Brake Valve Body Upper Valve Body Lower Valve Body Transmission Case Parking Lock Pawl Component Parts Installation Service Specifications A442F Automatic Transmission repair and workshop manual Covers FZJ80 and HDJ80 Toyota Landcruiser Hardtop canvas top station wagon Covers the 4 speed electronic controlled The new A442F automatic transmission is a 4 —speed Electronic Controlled Automatic Trans- mission and has following features; Electronic control provides the Automatic Transmission shift and lockup points most appropriate for the power characteristics of each engine and improves shift response.A high performance super flow torque converter in the Automatic Transmission is used to improve starting off acceleration and fuel econom more.....

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Toyota 2H 12H-T engine factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 12 Mb Covers the Diesel 2H and the 12H-T turbo diesel engines. includes engine mechanical fuel system cooling system lubrication starting and charging. About the Toyota 2H Engine The 2H is a 4.0 L (3980 cc) inline 6 12 valve OHV diesel engine. Bore is 91 mm and stroke is 102 mm with a compression ratio of 20.7:1. Output is 103 hp (77 kW) at 3500 rpm - later production years 107 hp (80 kW) with 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque at 2000 rpm. Applications Toyota Land Cruiser HJ47 HJ60 HJ75 Toyota Dyna HU20 30 40 50 Toyota Coaster HB20 30 About the 12H-T engine The 12H-T is a 4.0 L (3980 cc) inline 6 12 valve OHV turbocharged diesel engine. Bore is 91 mm and stroke is 102 mm with a compression ratio of 18.6:1. Output is 134 hp (100 kW) at 3500 rpm with 232 lb·ft (315 N·m) of torque at 1800 rpm. Toyota Land Cruiser HJ61 Toyota Coaster HB20 30 Toyota 2H 12H-T engine factor more information.....

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In 1941 the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines, where they found an old time Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to create similar vehicle but to not model the whole picture on the American Jeep. The prototype was called the Model AK and was formally adopted by The Japanese Imperial Army as the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha .

Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to have a light truck for the Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a 1/2 ton prototype known as the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP. For anyone who is known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some rough sketches. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back much like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side belonging to the radiator in addition to a folding windshield.

The AK10 used the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox connected going without running shoes. There isn't a mechanical relationship in between your AK10 as well as postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Numerous AK10's cant be found actively used (unlike the U.S. Jeep) and you will discover almost no photographs of it while in the battlefield.

1950 - The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep. American government ordered 100 vehicles aided by the new Willys specs and Toyota was asked to build them.
1951 - The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype got its start in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and much more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4-litre six-cylinder OHV Gasoline engine which generated 85 hp (63 kW) at 3600 rpm and 215 Nm (159 lbft) torque at 1600 rpm. It was built with a part-time four-wheel drive system such as the Jeep. Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case.
1951 - In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove generation x belonging to the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). In awe of this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.
1953 - Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and the body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.). T
1954 - The name "Land Cruiser" principal purpose is by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we were treated to another competitor - Land Rover. I were required to thought of a name for our car that would not sound less dignified as opposed to runners of our competitors. That may be why I thought we would refer to it as 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls. The name had already been used on the US Studebaker Land Cruiser car from 1934 to 1954 but this didn't cause any problems.
1954 - The 125 hp, 3.9-litre Type F gasoline engine added for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as:
1955 - The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced. It principal purpose is to a lot more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork as well as a better ride to be able to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a much more powerful 3.9-litre six-cylinder Type F gasoline engine, but still only had a three speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range, but it really had synchromesh on the 3rd type of and fourth gears.
1958 - The first Station wagon Land Cruiser was introduced with an even longer 2,650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase (the FJ35V; wagon and van). The FJ25 production were only available in Brazil being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.
1957 - A 4-door Station Wagon was added as the FJ35V. Land Cruisers were first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies. They were the first Japanese cars to be regularly exported to the united kingdom along with a few were initially used in the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme, by sub contractor Theiss Constructions.

1960 - The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was presented with a new 125 hp, 3.9 litre F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing, but continued the three speed main gearbox. The Brazilian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz built Diesel engine generating 78 hp.
1965 - Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles.
The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the nation.
1968 - The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
1972 - The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
1973 - The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase models with a six-cylinder H engine.
1974 - A four-cylinder 3.0-litre B diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than its 3.9-litre gasoline version. Note: the brand new B diesel engine was totally different from the B gasoline engine used while in the original BJ.
1975 - The 3.9-litre gasoline engine was replaced by way of a larger, much more powerful 4.2-litre 2F unit.
The FJ55 received front disc brakes.
1976 - United States-version FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes such as the FJ55.
The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California.
1977 - The Irish Army took delivery of the in order to 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable there is certainly good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the unsightly effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
1978 - The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in Federal Republic Of Germany with both diesel (BJ40) and petrol engines (FJ40 /55).
1979 - United States-version FJ40s were updated this year once you get your wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights.
Power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40s for the first time.
The diesel engine was improved, evolving in to the 3.2-litre 2B only in Japan.
A few of the.6-litre H diesel engine was optional in some markets.
1981 - the Diesel version received front disc brakes along with the much more powerful 3.4-litre 3B engine.
1983 - the last FJ40s imported to the U.S. were 1983 models (mid 1982 to mid 1983). Nobody kjnow for sure what number of were imported by Toyota, but a majority guess the cell number to get along with 300. 1983 FJ40s typically bring a premium for their rarity, though they don't much more advanced than 1982 models (mid 1981 to mid 1982).

50 Series
Production 19671980
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Engine 3.9 L I6 F petrol
4.2 L I6 2F petrol
Transmission 3 or 4-speed manual (J30, H41 or H42)
Wheelbase 2,710 mm (106.7 in)
Length 4,673 mm (184.0 in)
Width 1,710 mm (67.3 in)
Height 1,864 mm (73.4 in)

1967 - Production belonging to the FJ55 began. The FJ55 would have been a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has additionally been called a pig or an iron pig. The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase 2710 mm and principal purpose is to be sold in The United States and Australia.
Jan 1975 saw the F engine replaced by the 2F engine. Unusually for Toyota, the model (e.g. FJ55) still did not change.
Model 56 is actually within Japan only, with 2F engine ( Jan. 1975 - Jul. 1980 ).

60 Series
Often known as Toyota Samurai (Venezuela)
Production 19801990
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Engine 3.4 L I4 3B diesel
3.4 L I4 13B-T diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 2F petrol
4.0 L I6 3F petrol
4.0 L I6 2H diesel
4.0 L I6 12H-T diesel turbo
Transmission 4-speed manual H41F or H42F
4-speed automatic A440F
5-speed manual H55F (non-US)
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,675 mm (184.1 in)
Width 1,800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1,750 mm (68.9 in)

The Land Cruiser 60 series was made out of 1980 through 1990. May front engine, four door wagon which often can seat five people. As with any Land Cruisers generations, it will be well known while in the off-roading community because of its off-road capabilities but was somewhat limited by its poor departure angle. The 60 series was offered in the following solid exterior colors: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue; as well as in the following metallic exterior colors: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver.
1980 - The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 principal purpose is to better compete in the emerging sport utility market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater as well as an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0-litre 2H and four-cylinder 3.4-litre 3B diesel engines were added to the product line.

1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and also a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 series was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed while in the Toyota 1000 km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of Botswana.
1984 - This was the final year for the 40 series. Specialist suppliers of aftermarket parts and restorers who return old FJ40s to better-than-new condition replaced Toyota dealers as the main source of Land Cruiser expertise.
1984 - Alongside the 60 series, the 70 series was introduced.
1985 - The Direct-injection 12H-T and 13B-T turbodiesel engines were introduced.
1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0-litre 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to always be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.
Toyota Land Cruiser post-facelift (US)

70 Series
Production 1984present
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style 2-door pickup truck
2-door softtop / hardtop / troopie
4-door van
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine 2.4 L 22R petrol I4
4.0 L 3F petrol I6
4.5 L 1FZ petrol I6
Diesel:
2.4 L 2L diesel I4
3.4 L PZ diesel I5
4.0 L 2H diesel I6
4.2 L 1HZ diesel I6
Turbodiesel:
2.4 L 2L-T turbodiesel I4
2.5 L VM HR588 TD I5 (Italy)
3.4 L 13B-T turbodiesel I4
4.2 L 1HD turbodiesel I6
4.5 L 1VD turbodiesel V8
Transmission 5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,980 mm (117.3 in)
Length 4,995 mm (196.7 in)
Width 1,870 mm (73.6 in)
Height 2,070 mm (81.5 in)

1984 - 70 Series was introduced. 70Heavy to be a soft-top, hard-top, FRP top, utility, cab-chassis, and Troop Carrier (inward facing rear seats).The petrol engine was replaced with a 4.0-litre 3F engine. The 70 Light had a four-wheel coil spring solid-axle suspension for better ride quality. This lighter duty version belonging to the Land Cruiser had the 22R 2.4-litre gasoline engine, 2L and 2L-T ( turbo ) 2.4-litre diesel engines commonly found in the Toyota Hilux. The 70 Light was sold in a few markets as the Bundera or the Landcruiser II, later called 70 Prado. The 70 Prado eventually became popular and evolved into the 90. An automatic transmission (A440F) was introduced that make it the first four-wheel drive Japanese vehicle with an automatic transmission.
1990 - New-generation diesel engines were introduced including a five-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1PZ),and a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 HZ).
1993 to 1996 - the KZ 3.0-litre turbocharged diesel engine replaced the LJ while in the 70 series in European markets where this model was referred to as a KZJ70.
1993 - A highly developed 24-valve, 4.5-litre six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced.
1999 - Toyota updated the 70 series in a good many ways. The solid front axle received coil-spring suspension. The rear leaf springs were lengthened for increased ride comfort and wheel travel. The six-bolt wheels were replaced with five-bolt wheels. Several smaller modifications to the drivetrain provided increased durability. The long-wheel-base models received new designations: 78 for the troop carrier, and 79 for the pick-up.
2002 - HDJ79 is introduced to Australia along with the 1HD-FTE 4.2-litre six-cylinder 24-valve turbodiesel EFI engine.
2007 - Toyota's first turbodiesel V8 engine, the 1VD-FTV was released in a few countries for the 70 Series Land Cruiser. Other modifications range from the addition of a 4-door medium-wheel-base model (the 76) along with a significantly altered front look on all models.
The Sixth and Seventh generations belonging to the Land Cruiser continue to be produced and sold in African and Latin American regions. Production in Venezuela ended in 2008.
The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier' and 2-door cab-chassis.
BJ74 Mid wheelbase FRP-top 3.4D-T LX (Japan)

80 Series
Best known as Lexus LX 450
Toyota Land Cruiser Autana (COL, VEN)
Production 19891997
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Cuman, Venezuela
Body style 4-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Engine 4.0 L I6 3F-E petrol
4.5 L I6 1FZ petrol
4.2 L I6 1HD diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 1HZ diesel
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4,780 mm (188.2 in) (1990-94)
4,820 mm (189.8 in) (1995-97)
Width 1,830 mm (72.0 in) (1990-91)
1,930 mm (76.0 in) (1992-97)
Height 1,785 mm (70.3 in) (1990-91)
1,860 mm (73.2 in) (1992-94)
1,870 mm (73.6 in) (1995-97)
Curb weight 4,595 lb (2,084 kg) (1990-92)
4,760 lb (2,159 kg) (1993-97)

The Land Cruiser 80 series was introduced in late 1989. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a winch door in 1995. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja (Bubble) in Colombia and Venezuela problems roundness, but it was officially released as Land Cruiser Autana in both countries. The name is often a reference to the Tepui mesa Autana, a spectacular plateau & cave system along side the Guiana Shield craton. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles.
1990 - The 80 series station wagon was introduced, replacing the 60 series. All 80s sold in The United States and Europe are now determined a full-time four-wheel drive system. In Japan, Africa and Australia, a part-time system used to be available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential that led to lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes was built with a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.
1990 - A new generation of diesel engines were introduced, adding to the engines easily obtainable in the 80 series. The 80 series came with either a (3F-E) six-cylinder naturally aspirated petrol engine, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated diesel engine, (1HZ), or even a 1HD-T direct injection turbo diesel.
1991 - By mid 1991 the (3F-E) was introduced to the Australian market, a fuel injected version of the 3F.
1993 - If you're a 24-valve, 4.5-litre six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added from October 1992 and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer.Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) appeared as an option. The High Pinion Electric Locking front differential become to be found in US models.
1994 - A limited edition Land Cruiser Blue Marlin FZJ80R was introduced into the Australian market. They have 4.5 L straight 6 petrol motors with double overhead cams, automatic or manual transmission and 158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4600 rpm. The actual vehicle is blue from the Blue Marlin fish found the Blue Marlin logo during the entire car. A few of the features that the Blue Marlin included were altimeters, power windows, disk brakes, leather gear knob and steering wheel, central locking, leather trim, chrome handles and sidesteps, 16" alloy wheels, limited slip diff, ABS (antilock brakes), power steering, CD and cassette players, flares in addition to a limited edition bull bar. Only 500 were made.
1995 - Driver and passenger airbags were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors as well as an anti-lock braking system. The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with all the modern Toyota logo (which is sometimes described as a "bean with a hat" aka "the sombrero").
1996 - In the Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class. All American and British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes and airbags as standard equipment. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the Lexus LX 450.
1997 - A limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built specifically for collectors and therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels along with the "D" windows painted dark grey and special grey side moldings, and black pearl badging. The Collectors Edition only agreed to be available for the 1997 model year and the package was in addition to many of the available body colors.
1997 - An unknown number of FZJ80 Land Cruisers were sold in north america as "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. The pair were available in 2 colours; Antique Sage Pearl (Also known as Riverrock, Pewter or Grey) and Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badges, a serial number badge on the centre console, black pearl exterior badges, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic heating and cooling, two-tone tan and brown leather interiors and wheels together with the "D" windows painted dark gray. Many were manufactured together with the optional electric front and back locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed roof racks and running boards. Certain examples that still did not have many of these extras. The this past year for the electric locking front differentials.
2008 - Last 80-Series vehicle was built in Venezuela which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.
Land Cruiser with swing-out back-doors (HZJ81V; Japan)

90 Series
Otherwise known as Toyota Mer (Venezuela, 2-door)
Production 1996present

1996 - Alongside the 70 and 80, the 90 Prado was added. The 90 Prado was by means of Tahara Plant, available as a 3-door short wheelbase and 5-door long wheelbase version with either the 5VZ-FE petrol engine (24-valve six-cylinder, 3.4-litre), the 3RZ-FS (four-cylinder 2.7-litre) petrol engine or the 1KZ-TE turbodiesel (four-cylinder 3.0-litre) and 5L diesel(four-cylinder 3.0-litre).
90=Short wheelbase
95=Long wheelbase

100 Series
Often known as Lexus LX 470
Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon (UK 1998-2003)
Production 19982007
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style 4-door SUV
Engine 4.5 L I6 1FZ petrol
4.2 L I6 1HD-T diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 1HD-FTE diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 1HZ diesel
4.7 L V8 2UZ petrol
Transmission 4-speed automatic,
5-speed automatic,
5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112 in)
Length 4,890 mm (193 in)
Width 1,941 mm (76.4 in)
Height 1,849 mm (72.8 in)
Curb weight 2,320 kg (5,100 lb)

In April 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced to replace the 8-year-old 80 series.

There's two distinct versions belonging to the 100-series, the 100 and the 105. The two versions look a very similar, but there are actually significant differences under the bodywork. Despite these differences and official model names, both the 100 and 105 are collectively called the 100 series.

The 105 carried over the majority of its chassis and powertrain from the 80-series with coil suspended solid axles front & rear, and straight-6 petrol and diesel engines. These models were only sold in African, Australian and South American markets.

The 100 models were fitted with a slightly wider chassis, independent front suspension (IFS) and a couple new engines. The switch the signal from IFS had been a first for a Land Cruiser, and was made (in combination with rack-and-pinion steering) to improve on-road handling. However it also limited the vehicles off-road capability and durability, hence circumstance offer the solid axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models in a few markets. The table below identifies the range of 100 and 105 models and their worldwide availability.

Even though the 100 and 105 our body is identical, some exterior visual indications relating to the two. One of the most obvious will be the front end belonging to the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, on account of the IFS. The other indicator could be the design belonging to the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while he 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows the two versions to retain similar wheel tracks, although 100 has a significantly wider axle track to accommodate the IFS system.

The roll-out of a V8 engine seemed to be a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1Hz diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being for sale in Europe as well as UK since launch in 1998. The 4WD media in Australia were critical of Toyotas decision to Have the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in in conjunction with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine said "We intend to never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front along with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".

The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, ended up being also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus.

The 100 series was referred to as Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon the european union and Ireland from 1998 to 2003.

In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in parcels of countries. Total global production up to now was 3.72 million vehicles.

The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grill, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced through the years.

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Four-wheel drive, All-wheel drive, AWD, 4WD, or 4×4 ("four by four") is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine at the same time.

While many people typically associate the term 4x4 with off-road Sport and vehicles utility vehicles, powering all four tires provides much better control than typical road cars on many surfaces, and is an important part into the sport of rallying.

In abbreviations such as for instance 4×4, the first figure is normally the total wheels (more precisely, axle ends, which could have multiple wheels), and the second, the number that are run.

Syntactically, 4×2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine power to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive.

By this system, a six wheeled military transport truck would be a 6×6, as the typical American semi-truck tractor unit having two drive axles and a single unpowered steering axle would be a 6×4.

All Wheel Drive - an AWD vehicle drives all on the wheels all of the time, so the program must consist of a mechanism that is generally a limited slip differential or an electronically controlled clutch to allow a rotational difference between front and rear axles.

Some automobiles have controls for by themselves securing front, center, and rear differentials

Four wheel drive refers to vehicles that have a transfer case (a number of which include a differential that may or may not be lockable) between the front and rear axles, meaning that the front and rear drive shafts will not rotate at different speeds. This provides maximum torque transfer to the axle with the most traction, but can cause binding in high traction, tight turning situations. They're in addition either full-time or part-time 4WD selectable.

All wheel drive refers to a drive train system that includes a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. It is normally coupled with a few type of anti-slip innovation that will enable all tires to spin at different speeds, yet still maintain the ability to transfer torque from one wheel just in case of loss of traction at that wheel. All wheels are engaged to the drive full-time.

In automobiles and various other wheeled vehicles, a differential may be the usual way to allow the driving roadwheels to rotate at different speeds. It's required whenever the vehicle making, turns the wheel that is traveling around the outside on the turning curve roll further and faster than the other. The engine is hooked up to the shaft turning at angular velocity scriptstyle a. The driving wheels are connected to the other two shafts, and scriptstyle p and scriptstyle q are equal. If the engine is working at a constant speed, the rotational rate of every driving wheel can vary, but the sum (or average) of the two wheels' speeds can not change. An boost in the speed of one wheel must end up being balanced by an equal decrease in the speed of the other. (If one wheel is rotating backward, which is possible in very tight turns, its speed should be counted as negative.)

It may seem illogical that the speed of one input shaft can determine the speeds of two output shafts, which tend to be allowed to vary. Logically, the number of inputs should be at least as good as the number of outputs. But, the system has another constraint. Under normal conditions (i.e. just small tyre slip), the ratio of the speeds of the two driving wheels equals the ratio on the radii on the paths around which the two wheels are rolling, and that is determined by the track-width of the vehicle (the distance between the driving wheels) and the radius of the turn. Hence the method will not have one input and two independent outputs. It has two inputs and two outputs.

A different automotive application of differentials is within epicyclic gearing. A gearbox is constructed out of several differentials. In each differential, one shaft is hooked up to the motor (through a clutch or functionally similar device), another to the driving wheels (through another differential as described above), and the third shaft can be braked so its angular velocity is zero. (The braked part may not be a shaft, but something that plays an equivalent role.) When one shaft is braked, the gear ratio between the engine and wheels is determined of the value(s) of scriptstyle p and/or scriptstyle q for that differential, which reflect the amounts of teeth on its gears. A number of differentials, with various gear ratios, are permanently connected in parallel with each other, but only one of them has one shaft braked so it can not rotate, so only that differential transmits energy from the engine to the wheels. (If the transmission is in "neutral" or "park", none of the shafts is braked.) moving gears simply requires releasing the braked shaft of one differential and braking the appropriate shaft on another. This is a much simpler operation to do automatically than engaging and disengaging gears in a conventional gearbox. Epicyclic gearing is almost always used in automatic transmissions, and is nowadays also used in some hybrid and electrical cars.

Non-automotive uses of differentials include performing analog arithmetic. Two on the differential's three shafts are made to turn through angles that represent (are proportional to) two numbers, as well as the angle of the 3rd shaft's rotation signifies the distinction or sum of the two input numbers. An equation clock that used a differential for addition, made in 1720, is actually the earliest device definitely known to have used a differential for any purpose. In the twentieth Century, large assemblies of several differentials were used as analog computers, determining, for example, the direction for which a gun should be aimed. Nevertheless, the introduction of electronic digital computers provides produced these uses of differentials obsolete. Almost all the differentials that are now made are utilized in automobiles and similar vehicles. This article therefore emphasizes automotive uses of differentials.

The following description of a differential applies to a "conventional" rear-wheel-drive truck or car with an "open" or minimal slip differential combined with a decrease gearset using bevel gears (these are not strictly needed - see spur-gear differential):

Torque is supplied from the engine, via the transmission, to a drive shaft (British expression: 'propeller shaft', commonly and informally abbreviated to 'prop-shaft'), which runs on the final drive device that contains the differential. A spiral bevel pinion gear takes its drive from the end of the propeller shaft, and is encased within the casing of the final drive unit. This meshes aided by the huge spiral bevel ring gear, referred to as the crown wheel. The crown wheel and pinion may mesh in hypoid orientation, not shown. The crown wheel gear is attached to the differential carrier or cage, which contains the 'sun' and 'planet' gears or tires, which are a cluster of four opposed bevel gears in perpendicular airplane, so each bevel gear meshes with two neighbours, and rotates counter to the third, that it faces and does not mesh with. The two sun wheel gears are aligned on the same axis as the crown wheel gear, and drive the axle half shafts linked to the vehicle's driven wheels. The other two planet gears are aligned on a perpendicular axis which changes orientation with the ring gear's rotation. Into the two figures shown above, just one environment gear (green) is illustrated, however, most automotive applications contain two opposing planet gears. Additional differential styles employ different amounts of planet gears, depending on durability requirements. Since the differential carrier rotates, the modifying axis orientation of the environment gears imparts the motion of the band gear to the movement of the sun gears by pushing on them rather than switching against them (that is, the same teeth remain in the same mesh or contact position), but because the world gears are not restricted from turning against each other, within that motion, the sun gears can counter-rotate in accordance with the ring gear and to each other under the same force (in which case the same teeth do not stay in contact).

Thus, for example, if the vehicle is making a turn to the correct, the primary crown wheel may make 10 full rotations. During that time, the left wheel will generate much more rotations because it has further to travel, and the proper wheel will make fewer rotations because it features less distance to travel. The sun gears (which drive the axle half-shafts) will rotate in reverse directions relative on the band gear by, state, 2 full turns each (4 full turns relative to one another), leading to the remaining wheel making 12 rotations, as well as the right wheel making 8 rotations.

The rotation of the crown wheel gear is always the average of the rotations of the side sunshine gears. This is the reason why, in the event that driven roadwheels are raised clear of the ground because of the motor off, and the drive shaft is held (say making the transmission 'in gear', preventing the ring gear from turning inside the differential), manually rotating one driven roadwheel causes the opposite roadwheel to rotate in the other course by the same amount.

When the car is traveling in a straight line, there will be no differential movement of the planetary program of gears other than the minute moves necessary to make up for minor variations in wheel diameter, undulations in the road (which make for shorter or longer wheel path), etc.

In 1893, before the establishment of a modern automotive business in Britain, English engineer Bramah Joseph Diplock patented a four-wheel-drive system for a traction engine, including four-wheel steering and three differentials, which ended up being subsequently built. The growth also incorporated Bramah's Pedrail wheel system in what had been one of the first four-wheel-drive cars to display an deliberate capability to travel on challenging road surfaces. Information technology stemmed from Bramagh's past idea of developing an motor that would reduce the amount of damage to public roads.

Ferdinand Porsche built and designed a four-wheel-driven Electric vehicle for the k. u. k. Hofwagenfabrik Ludwig Lohner & Co. at Vienna in 1899, presented on the consumer during the 1900 World Exhibition at Paris. An electric hub motor at each wheel powered the vehicle. Although clumsily heavy, the car proved a powerful sprinter and record-breaker in the arms of its owner E.W. Hart. Due to its unusual status the so-called Lohner-Porsche is not commonly credited as the first four-wheel-driven automobile.

The first four-wheel-drive car, as well as hill-climb racer, with internal burning engine, the Spyker 60 H.P., was offered in 1903 by Dutch brothers Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker of Amsterdam. The two-seat activities car, which was also the first ever car equipped with a six-cylinder engine, is now an show in the Louwman Collection (the former Nationaal Automobiel Museum) at the Hague in The Netherlands.

Designs for four-wheel drive in the U.S., came from the Twyford Company of Brookville, Pennsylvania in 1905, six were made there around 1906; one still is and exists displayed yearly. The second U.S. four-wheel-drive vehicle was built in 1908 by (what became) the Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) of Wisconsin (not to be confused with the term "FWD" as an acronym for front-wheel drive). FWD would afterwards generate around 15,000 of its four-wheel-drive Model B vehicles for the Uk and American armies during World War I. About 11,500 on the Jeffery or Nash Quad models (1913–1919) were similarly used. The Quad not only came with four-wheel drive and four-wheel brakes, but also featured four-wheel steering.

The Reynolds-Alberta Museum has a four-wheel-drive "Michigan" car from about 1905 in unrestored storage. The Marmon-Herrington organization ended up being launched in 1931 to serve a growing industry for moderately listed four-wheel-drive vehicles. Marmon-Herrington specialized in changing Ford trucks to four-wheel drive and got off to a successful begin by procuring contracts for military aircraft refueling trucks, 4×4 chassis for towing light weaponry, commercial aircraft refueling trucks, and an order from the Iraqi Pipeline Company for what were the largest trucks ever built at the time.

Daimler-Benz additionally has a history in four-wheel drive. In 1907 the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft had built a four-wheel-driven automobile known as Dernburg-Wagen, also equipped with four-wheel steering, that was used by German colonial civil servant, Bernhard Dernburg, in Namibia. Mercedes and BMW, in 1926, introduced a rather advanced four-wheel the G1, drive, the G4 and G4 following. The 1937 Mercedes-Benz G5 and BMW 325 4×4 featured full-time four-wheel drive, four-wheel steering, three locking differentials, and fully independent suspension. These people were produced because of a government need for a four-wheel-drive passenger vehicle. The modern G-series/Wolf such as for instance the G55 and G500 AMG still feature some of the attributes, with the exception of fully separate suspension system since it hinders suspension articulation. The Unimog is another Mercedes truck.

It was not until "go-anywhere" vehicles had been required for the military that four-wheel drive found its place. The Jeep, originally developed by American Bantam but mass-produced by Willys and Ford, grew to be the best-known four-wheel-drive car in the world during World War II. Willys (since 1950 owner of the Jeep name) introduced the CJ-2A in 1945 as the first full-production four-wheel-drive car for sale in the general marketplace. Information technology set the design for a lot of additional four-wheel drive automobiles.

The Land Rover made an appearance at the Amsterdam Motor Show in 1948, originally conceived as a stop-gap product for the struggling Rover car company, and despite long-term under-investment succeeded far better than the passenger cars. Land Rover created a luxury 4WD with the Range Rover into the 1970s, which, unlike some offerings from other producers, was able of serious off-road use. The inspiration was a Willys MB that has been regularly operate off-road on the farm belonging to chief engineer Maurice Wilks, and was felt so it required some refinement.

Kaiser Jeep, the successor to Willys, introduced a 4WD wagon called the Wagoneer in 1963. Information technology was revolutionary at the amount of time, not only because of its technical innovations these as an independent front suspension and the first automatic transmission with 4WD, but also given that it was equipped and done as a regular passenger automobile. The Super Wagoneer (1966 to 1969) ended up being operated by Buick or Rambler V8s. Its high degree of equipment created it the first "luxury" SUV. American Motors (AMC) acquired Kaiser's Jeep Division in 1970 and rapidly upgraded and expanded the entire line of serious off-road 4WD vehicles. The top range full-size Grand Wagoneer proceeded to compete with traditional luxury cars. It was relatively unchanged during its production through 1991, even after Chrysler's buyout of AMC.

Jensen applied the Formula Ferguson (FF) full-time all-wheel-drive system to 318 units of their Jensen FF built from 1966 to 1971, marking the first time 4WD was found in a production GT sports car. While most 4WD programs split torque evenly, the Jensen split torque roughly 40% front, 60% rear by gearing the front and rear at different ratios. Subaru introduced the mass-produced Leone in 1972 featuring a part-time four-wheel-drive system that could not end up being interested on dry pavement. The American Motors Corporation (AMC) introduced a full-time AWD car the same year as the Subaru in the Jeep Cherokee and Wagoneer with Quadra Trac (1973 product year models were for sale starting September 1972). Information technology ruled all other makes in FIA rally competition, due to the performance of the full-time AWD, which performed not require the driver to get out of the vehicle to lock hubs or manually select between 4WD and 2WD modes in the car like other American four-wheel-drive vehicles of the period. Drivers Gene Henderson and Ken Pogue collected the Press-on-Regardless Rally FIA championship with a Quadra Trac equipped Jeep in 1972.

American Motors introduced the innovative Eagle for the 1980 model year. These were the first mass production cars to use the complete FF method. The AMC Eagle was the world's first complete line (coupe, sedan, and station wagon) of permanent automatic all-wheel-drive passenger models. The new Eagles combined Jeep technology with current and proven AMC passenger automobile platform. They ushered a whole new product category of "sport-utility" or crossover SUV. AMC's Eagles came with the comfort and high-level appointments expected of regular passenger models and used the off-road technology for an extra margin of protection and traction.

The Eagle's thick viscous fluid center differential offered quiet and smooth move of power that was guided proportionally to the axle with the greatest traction. This was a real full-time system working just in four-wheel drive without excessive wear on suspension or driveline components. There was clearly no low range in the transfer case. This grew to be the forerunner of the designs that followed from other manufacturers. The automobile press at the amount of time tested the traction of the Eagles and defined it as far superior to the Subaru's and that it could beat lots of so-called off-road vehicles. Four Wheeler journal determined that the AMC Eagle was "The beginning of a new generation of cars."

The Eagles had been popular (specifically in the snowbelt), had towing capacity, and came in a number of gear degrees including luxury and sport trims. Two additional models had been extra in 1981, the sub-compact SX/4 and Kammback. A manual a transmission and top axle-disconnect feature were additionally created available for greater fuel economy. During 1981 and 1982 a unique convertible had been added to the line. The Eagle's monocoque body was strengthened for the conversion and had a steel targa bar with a removable fiberglass roof section. The Eagle station wagon remained in production for one model 12 months after Chrysler acquired AMC in 1987.

Audi additionally launched a permanently all-wheel-driven road-going car, the Audi Quattro, in 1980. Audi's frame engineer, Jorg Bensinger, had noticed in winter months tests in Scandinavia that a car utilized by the German Army, the Volkswagen Iltis, could beat any high-performance Audi. He proposed establishing a four-wheel-drive car, that would also used for rallying to improve Audi's conservative image. The Audi Quattro system became a feature on production cars.

In 1987, Toyota also produced a auto built for competition in rally campaigns. A limited amount of road-going FIA Homologation Special Vehicle Celica GT-Fours (otherwise known as Toyota Celica All-Trac Turbo in some markets) were produced. The All-Trac system was later available on serial manufacturing Toyota Camry, Toyota Corolla, and Toyota Previa models.

Some of the earliest mid-engined four-wheel-drive cars were the various road-legal rally cars made for cluster B homologation, such as for instance the Ford RS200 made from 1984 to 1986. In 1989, niche maker Panther Westwinds created a mid-engined four-wheel-drive, the Panther Solo 2.

In 2008, Nissan launched the GT-R featuring a rear mounted transaxle. The AWD system requires two drive shafts, one main shaft from the engine on the transaxle and a differential and second drive shaft from the transaxle on the front wheels.

The Ferrari FF introduced in 2011 features a unique program called 4RM, which does away using the heavy center differential and as an alternative attaches second, smaller transaxle that draws power from the front of the engine. This permits the car to keep the traditional rear transaxle design minus the requirement for a second driveshaft for the front wheels.

Today, innovative all-wheel-drive programs are found in many passenger vehicles and some exotic sports cars and supercars. Mainstream luxury and near-luxury vehicles that could absorb the extra cost included, and for which the fuel economy punishment of some 5% is not an issue, are offered with AWD (or "4x4" or "4WD") as a safety enhancement to meet owners' objectives for a complete complement of up-to-date innovation.

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