Cricket can be a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players while on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of the industry rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as you can while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and for that reason limit the runs scored by the batting team. A run is scored by the striking batsman showing up in ball in reference to his bat, running to the opposite end belonging to the pitch and touching the crease there without having to be dismissed. The teams switch between batting and fielding at the bottom of an innings. In professional cricket the size of a game ranges from 20 overs of six bowling deliveries per side to test out cricket played over five days. The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) along with the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals.
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A comprehensive fitness program tailored with regard to an individual will probably focus on a single or more specific skills, is without question age- or health-related needs such as bone health. Many sources also cite mental, social and emotional health as an essential part of overall fitness. This may be presented in textbooks as a triangle formulated from three points, which represent physical, emotional, and mental fitness. Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions resulting from unhealthy lifestyle or aging. Working out can also help people sleep better. In order to remain healthy you should engage in physical activity.
Bodybuilding is often a form of body modification, involving intensive muscle hypertrophy. An individual who engages in this activity is known as a bodybuilder. In competitive and professional bodybuilding, bodybuilders display their physiques to a panel of judges, who assign points based on their appearance. Bodybuilders prepare for competition through a schooling would include biology loss of weight, oils, and tanning (or tanning lotions) which in combination with lighting make the definition of the group of muscles more distinct.
Some well-known bodybuilders include Charles Atlas, Steve Reeves, Reg Park, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Lou Ferrigno. Currently, IFBB professional bodybuilder Jay Cutler from america holds the title of Mr. Olympia. The winner of the annual Mr. Olympia contest is referred to as as by far the top professional bodybuilder.
Physique contests for women go as far back to at least the 1960s with contests much like the Miss Physique and Miss Americana. However, these early "bodybuilding" contests were really not a lot more than bikini contests. The first U.S. Women's National Physique Championship, promoted by Henry McGhee and held in Canton, Ohio in 1978, is generally regarded as the first true female bodybuilding contest - that may be, the first contest where the entrants were judged solely on muscularity (Todd, 1999).
More contests did start to show up in 1979. A few were the following:
The second U.S. Women's National Physique Championship, won by Kay Baxter, with Marilyn Schriner second and Cammie Lusko third.
The first IFBB Women's World Activity And Exercise Championship, held on June 16, won by Lisa Lyon, followed by Claudia Wilbourn, Stella Martinez, Stacey Bentley, and Bette Brown.
The Best Around contest, held at Warminster, PA on August 18, featuring a $5,000 prize fund, with $2,500 awarded for first place. Patsy Chapman was the winner, followed by April Nicotra, Bentley, Brown, and Carla Dunlap. (Levin, 1980)
The Robby Robinson Classic, held at the Embassy Auditorium in Los Angeles on August 25. Bentley finished first, also winning best legs and best poser, followed by Brown, Lusko, and Georgia Miller. (Roark, 2005)
Although these early events were regarded as bodybuilding contests, the women wore high-heeled shoes, and did not clench their fists while posing. Additionally, we were holding not in order to use the three so-called "men's poses" the double biceps, crab, and lat spread. The contests were generally held by promoters acting independently; this online game still lacked a governing body. That would enhancements made on 1980.
1980 - the start of the present day era
The National Physique Committee (NPC) held the first women's Nationals in 1980. Since its inception, this was the very best amateur level competition with regard to in the states. Laura Combes won the inaugural contest.
The first World Couples Championship was held in Atlantic City on April 8. The winning couple was Stacey Bentley and Chris Dickerson, with April Nicotra and Robby Robinson in second. Bentley picked up her third consecutive victory while in the Frank Zane Invitational on June 28, ahead of Rachel McLish, Lynn Conkwright, Suzy Green, Patsy Chapman, and Georgia Miller Fudge.
1980 has also been the year belonging to the first Ms. Olympia (initially referred to as a "Miss" Olympia), the most prestigious contest for professionals. Initially, the contest was promoted by George Snyder. The contestants were required to send in resumes and pictures, and were hand-picked by Snyder based on their potential to always be fitness role models for the majority of American woman. The first winner was Rachel McLish who had also won the NPC's USA Championship earlier in the year. The contest must have been a major turning point for the sport of women's bodybuilding. McLish grown into very promotable, and inspired many future competitors to start out training and competing. Stacey Bentley finished in fifth place, in what turned into something her final competition.
Rachel McLish took over as the most successful competitor of the early 1980s. She lost her Ms. Olympia crown by finishing second to Kike Elomaa almost 30 years ago, but regained the title in 1982. A new major pro contest, the Women's Pro World Championship, was held initially almost 30 years ago (won by Lynn Conkwright). Held annually through 1989, I thought this was the second most prestigious contest of times. McLish added this title to her collection in 1982. George Snyder lost the rights to the Ms. Olympia in 1982, and now the contestants were no longer hand-picked, but instead qualified for the Ms. Olympia through placings in lesser contests.
As the sport grew, the competitors' level of learning martial arts gradually increased (most competitors while in the earliest shows had very little weight training experience), as well as sport slowly evolved towards more muscular physiques. This trend to be able to emerge in 1983. With McLish not competing in the big shows, Carla Dunlap took both the Pro World and Ms. Olympia titles. Dunlap possessed a much more muscular physique than either McLish or Elomaa, and though she never repeated her successes of 1983, she would remain competitive throughout the decade.
26 years ago, a new force emerged in women's bodybuilding. Cory Everson won the NPC Nationals, then defeated McLish to win the Ms. Olympia. At 5'9" and 150 pounds, Everson's physique set a new standard. She would move to win six consecutive Ms. Olympia titles before retiring undefeated as being a professional, the only woman ever to achieve this.
The Ms. International contest was introduced in 1986, first won by Erika Geisen. The contest was not held in 1987, but it returned once and for all in 1988. Since the demise of the Pro World Championship after 1989, the Ms. International continues to be second in prestige only to the Ms. Olympia. The 1989 Ms. International was noteworthy for the belief that that the original winner, Tonya Knight, was later disqualified for using a surrogate on her behalf drug test at the 1988 Ms. Olympia contest. Consequently, runner-up Jackie Paisley received the 1989 title. Knight was suspended from IFBB competition through the long run of 1990, and was forced to return her prize money from the 1988 Ms. Olympia and 1989 Ms. International, a total of $12,000 (Merritt, 2006).
The American Federation of Women Bodybuilders seemed to be founded do your best period, representing a growing awareness of women bodybuilders in the usa. Winning competitors such as Laurie Stark helped to popularize the federation.
Mainstream exposure in the 1980s
During this time, women's bodybuilding was noticed that you achieve some mainstream exposure. Pro competitor Anita Gandol created a stir by posing for Playboy in 1984, earning a one year suspension from the IFBB. Erika Mes, a Dutch competitor, posed nude for the Belgian issue of Playboy in September, 1987, also earning a one year suspension (Flex, 2003).
Lori Bowen, winner belonging to the 1984 Pro World Championship, appeared in a widely broadcast commercial for Miller Lite beer with Rodney Dangerfield. Additionally, competitors Lynn Conkwright (1982) and Carla Dunlap (1984) were a part of ABC's Superstars competition.
In 1985, a movie called Pumping Iron II: The Women was released. This film documented the preparation of several women for the 1983 Caesars Palace World Cup Championship. Competitors prominently featured while in the film were Kris Alexander, Lori Bowen, Lydia Cheng, Carla Dunlap, Bev Francis, and Rachel McLish. At that moment, Francis was actually a powerlifter, though she soon made a successful transition to bodybuilding, becoming websites leading competitors of the late 1980s and early 1990s.
For quite some time in the mid-1980s, NBC broadcast coverage of the Ms. Olympia contest on their Sportsworld program. The taped footage was telecast months after the contest, and was usually used as secondary material to fill out programs featuring events such as boxing. Typically, the broadcasts included only the very best several women. Nevertheless, Cory Everson and a few of her leading competitors were receiving national TV coverage.
1990 - a fresh start while in the new decade
Sharon Bruneau, a Canadian bodybuilder whose background in fashion modelling brought a new dimension in posing and style to the sport.
Normally, competitors must qualify for the Ms. Olympia by achieving certain placings in lesser pro contests. However, the cancellation belonging to the Women's Pro World contest in 1990 left only the Ms. International as a Ms. Olympia qualifier. Consequently, the IFBB thought we would open the Ms. Olympia to every one women with pro cards, as well as a field of thirty competitors entered. Lenda Murray, a new pro from Michigan, earned a decisive victory and emerged as the successor to Cory Everson. Murray took over as next dominant figure in the sport.
A new professional contest, the Jan Tana Classic, was introduced in 1991. The contest was named ready for its promoter, a marketer of tanning products, and ran annually until 2003 with the departure of Wayne Demilia (it was later revived in 2007). The inaugural event was won by Sue Gafner. The Jan Tana filled the void left by the Women's Pro World contest, and occupied the telephone number three slot on the pro circuit throughout its lifetime. 1991 also saw Tonya Knight to be able to competition, winning the Ms. International.
Early 1990s controversies
The 1991 Ms. Olympia contest was the first to be televised live. Lenda Murray faced a serious challenge from the 1990 runner-up, Bev Francis. Francis had started bodybuilding in the mid-80s, converting over from powerlifting. Over time, she had gradually refined her physique to be more in accordance with judging standards. However, she came to the 1991 contest noticeably larger than in previous years. Francis was leading going into the night show, with Murray needing all the first place votes to retain her title. Murray managed to do just that, winning a somewhat controversial decision by one point.
1992 saw more controversy, by this point at the Ms. International contest. Don't know what to the increased size displayed by Murray and Francis at the first sort Ms. Olympia, the IFBB made an and try to "feminize" this online game. The IFBB, led by Ben Weider, had created a a list of "femininity" rules; one line while in the judging rules told me that competitors truly "too big". The judges secrets and techniques for the competitors stated them to be buying feminine, but not emaciated physique. The contest winner was Germany's Anja Schreiner, a blue-eyed blonde with a symmetrical physique, but who weighed only 130 pounds at 5'7". The announcement of her victory met with a great deal of booing that Arnold Schwarzenegger were required to step on stage to address the target audience, saying "the hell together with the judges". Many observers felt that the IFBB had instructed the judges to select essentially the most marketable contestant, not the best physique.
The 1992 Ms. International is also famous to find an incident involving British competitor Paula Bircumshaw. Bircumshaw was the same height as Schreiner and possessed a similar level of symmetry and definition, but carried significantly more muscle, hitting the scales at 162 pounds. She was the clear audience favorite, but was relegated to eighth place. Normally, the very best ten contestants have been called out at the bottom of the show when the winners are announced, but the judges only called back the top six, hoping to keep Bircumshaw back stage. This resulted in an uproar from the target audience. Along with the audience chanting her name, Bircumshaw returned to the stage and the top six competitors.
Advertising in Muscle & Fitness for the 1992 Ms. Olympia featured Schreiner prominently, relegating two-time defending champion Murray to a small "also competing" notice. Nevertheless, Murray apparently met the "femininity" requirements, and been able to retain her title; Schreiner finished sixth, and promptly retired from competition.
Lenda's reign continues
As soon as 1992 debacles, the judging rules were rewritten. The new rules retained provisions for aesthetics, but allowed the contests to be judged as physique contests. Lenda Murray continued to dominate the sport through 1995, matching Cory Everson's record of six consecutive Ms. Olympia titles. Murray's closest rival was probably Laura Creavalle, who won the Ms. International title three times, and twice was runner-up to Murray at the Olympia. You could potentially time, some additional professional shows were held, for a few three mainstays. The 1994 schedule included the Canada Pro Cup, won by Laura Binetti, and the associated with all three annual Grand Prix events in Prague, won by Drorit Kernes. 1996 saw an additional Grand Prix in Slovakia. Besides providing the competitors with extra opportunities to win prize money, these contests also served as additional Ms. Olympia qualifiers.
A new Ms. Olympia
1996 was notable for the next reason - after six consecutive victories, Lenda Murray was dethroned as Ms. Olympia by Kim Chizevsky. Chizevsky had been the runner-up in 1995 and had two Ms. International titles (1993 and 1996) to her credit, but her victory came as something of a surprise, because so many had regarded Murray as virtually unbeatable. After an unsuccessful attempt to wrest the title from Chizevsky in 1997, Murray retired from competition. Chizevsky successfully defended her title again at the 1998 Ms. Olympia. The 1998 contest was held in Prague, at first the competition had been held outside of the United States.
1999 Ms. Olympia controversy
The 1999 Ms. Olympia was originally scheduled to be held on the 9th of October in Santa Monica, California. However, a couple of weeks prior to the scheduled date, the IFBB announced that the contest had been cancelled. The main cause was the withdrawal of promoter Jarka Kastnerova (who promoted the 1998 contest in Prague) for financial reasons, including a low number of advance ticket sales for the 1999 event. The backlash I really hope announcement in order to a flurry of activity, aided by the contest being rescheduled contained in the Women's Extravaganza (promoted by Kenny Kassel and Bob Bonham) in Secaucus, New Jersey on the actual 2nd of October. Very last minute sponsorship came from several sources, most of all available $50,000 from Flex magazine. Amid all the turmoil, Kim Chizevsky won her fourth consecutive title.
Changes in 2000
The IFBB introduced several changes to female bodybuilding in 2000. The Ms. Olympia contest would stop held as a separate contest, instead being incorporated together with the "Olympia Weekend". Weight classes, long a standard part of amateur contests, were introduced while in the pro ranks. Also, new judging guidelines for athlete presentation were introduced. A letter to the competitors from Jim Manion (chairman belonging to the Professional Judges Committee) stated that women would be judged on healthy appearance, face, makeup, and skin tone. The criteria given in Manion's letter included the statement "symmetry, presentation, separations, and muscularity BUT IS NOT TO THE EXTREME!"
Of the three pro contests held in 2000, only the Ms. International named an overall winner - Vickie Gates, who had won the contest in 1999. The Jan Tana Classic as well as the Ms. Olympia simply had weight class winners. With Kim Chizevsky retiring from bodybuilding to pursue fitness competition, the Ms. Olympia title was shared by class winners Andrulla Blanchette and Valentina Chepiga.
Two legends return
The 2001 pro schedule opened routinely enough, with Vickie Gates winning the Ms. International title for the third consecutive year. However, the Ms. Olympia featured a "surprise" winner, as Juliette Bergmann returned to competition when he was 42. Bergmann, the 1986 Pro World champion, we had not competed since 1989. Entering the Olympia as a lightweight, she defeated heavyweight winner Iris Kyle for the overall title. While in the five years that the Ms. Olympia was contested in multiple weight classes, I thought this was the only time that the lightweight winner took the overall title.
In 2002, six-time Olympia winner Lenda Murray returned after a five year absence. Bergmann (lightweight) and Murray (heavyweight) won the two weight classes in both 2002 and 2003. Murray won the overall title both years, setting a new standard of eight Ms. Olympia titles. Another noteworthy event in 2003 was the thirteenth and final Jan Tana Classic, won by newcomer Helle Nielsen from Denmark.
Two titles for Iris Kyle
Murray was unseated as Ms. Olympia for the second amount of time in 2004. Iris Kyle, a top pro competitor since 1999, defeated Murray in a close battle in the heavyweight class, and bested lightweight winner Dayana Cadeau for the overall title. Kyle became only the second woman to win both the Ms. International and Ms. Olympia titles while in the same year, matching Kim Chizevsky's feat of 1996.
2005 rule changes
In a memo dated December 6, 2004, IFBB Chairman Jim Manion introduced the so-called '20 percent rule', requesting "that female athletes in Bodybuilding, Fitness and Figure slow up the amount of muscularity by a factor of 20%". The memo stated that rate of interest "applies to those female athletes whose physiques require the decrease". A further change was introduced in a memo from Manion dated April 26, 2005, which announced that starting with the 2005 Ms. Olympia, the IFBB was abolishing the weight class system adopted in 2000.
The 2005 contest season saw another double winner, as Yaxeni Oriquen won her third Ms. International title, then edged out defending champion Iris Kyle to win the Ms. Olympia. Also notable in 2005 was the return of Jitka Harazimova, who had last competed in 1999. Harazimova won the Charlotte Pro contest in their own return to competition, qualifying her for the Ms. Olympia where she finished fourth.
2006 and 2007 events
In 2006, Iris Kyle won both the Ms. International and the Ms. Olympia, repeating her accomplishment of 2004. Kyle won the Ms. International and Ms. Olympia for a third time in 2007, tying the Ms. International record for most people wins shared by Laura Creavalle, Vickie Gates, and Yaxeni Oriquen. 2007 also saw the revival of the Jan Tana Classic, which featured two weight classes for the female competitors (and also included a figure contest). The class titles were won by Stephanie Kessler (heavyweight) and Sarah Dunlap (lightweight), with Dunlap named the overall winner.
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